- James is a post-doctoral research fellow studying polar climate variability and change. His primary research focuses on the dramatic recent changes being observed in the Arctic, including the rapid loss of sea ice and pronounced warming � and their causes. Current research topics include the causes of Arctic temperature amplification; climate feedbacks in the polar regions; the drivers and climatic impacts of Arctic sea ice decline; and variability and trends in polar storm activity. Prior to moving to Melbourne in June 2009, James gained his PhD at the University of East Anglia, in collaboration with the British Antarctic Survey. He conducted research into the Southern Ocean response to recent changes in atmospheric circulation (Southern Annular Mode), induced by ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. A key aspect of this work was assessing the ability of current climate models to represent these observed changes in the high-latitude southern hemisphere climate. James has participated in two oceanographic research cruises to the Antarctic and Southern Ocean.